What Are the Symptoms of Bipolar I Disorder ?
People with Bipolar I Disorder may have different types of symptoms with intense emotional states that often occur in episodes.
The symptoms of Bipolar I Disorder are defined primarily by manic or mixed episodes lasting at least a week. Severe manic or depressive symptoms may result in hospitalization. Depressive episodes in Bipolar I Disorder usually last at least 2 weeks.
A person may be having a Bipolar I Disorder episode if he or she experiences manic or depressive symptoms for most of the day, almost every day, or for at least a week or so. Symptoms of Bipolar I Disorder are described below.
Symptoms of a manic episode include:
- A noticeable period of abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary)
- Three (or more) of the following (four if the mood is only irritable):
- Inflated self-esteem
- Reduced need for sleep
- More talkative than usual
- Racing thoughts
- Easily distracted
- Increase in goal-directed activity
- Extreme involvement in pleasurable, high-risk activities, such as unrestrained spending sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish investments
Symptoms of a depressive episode include:
- Five (or more) of the following present in the same 2-week period; at least one of the symptoms is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure:
- Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day
- Lack of interest in daily activities
- Weight gain or significant weight loss when not dieting
- Insomnia or excessive sleeping
- Noticeable agitation or retardation
- Loss of energy or fatigue
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- Trouble concentrating
- Persistent thoughts of suicide or death
Symptoms of a mixed episode include:
- Experiencing symptoms of both a manic episode and a depressive episode nearly every day in a 1-week period
- Impairment in occupational functioning or in social situations or relationships with others
- The need to be hospitalized to prevent self-harm or harm to others
In addition to mania and depression, Bipolar I Disorder can cause a range of moods, as shown on the scale.
Someone having a manic episode may think he or she is famous or rich. A depressive episode may spur feelings of worthlessness.
*People with Bipolar I Disorder may also have behavioral problems, or they may act out during social or professional situations. At first, it's not always easy to recognize these issues as mental health symptoms.